KIEHL’S Clearly Corrective Dark Spot Solution
Water, Propylene Glycol, Glycerin, Denatured alcohol, PEG/PPG/Polybutylene Glycol-8/5/3 Glycerin, Hydroxypropyl Tetrahydropyrantriol, 3-O-Ethyl Ascorbic Acid, PPG-6-Decyltetradeceth-30, Phenoxyethanol, Salicylic Acid, Xanthan Gum, Hydroxyethylcellulose, Potassium Hydroxide, Citric Acid, Sodium Citrate, Tocopheryl Acetate, Lavender Oil, Disodium EDTA, Adenosine, Linalool, Butylene Glycol, Tocopherol, Chinipi (Japanese orange) Peel Extract, Paeonia Suffruticosa (Mudan or Moutan or tree peony) Root Extract.
In this relatively short ingredients list, you will find solvents (denatured alcohol, water, propylene glycol, butylene glycol), pH adjusters (Potassium Hydroxide, Citric Acid, Sodium Citrate), fragrance(lavender oil, Linalool), thickeners (Xanthan Gum, Hydroxyethylcellulose), emulsifier (PPG-6-Decyltetradeceth-30), humectants (PEG/PPG/Polybutylene Glycol-8/5/3, glycerin), preservatives (Phenoxyethanol),
It may help: orange peel extract contains nobiletin. Better? Skin Actives use pure nobiletin, ensuring activity. Once you know which chemical confers ceratin activity to a plant extract, it’s better to use the chemical, because the concentration of a chemical in an extract can vary so much!
Salicylic acid may help because it helps with exfoliation but it seems to be present at a very low concentration (after phenoxyethanol, so below 1%).
The root bark of the Mutan peony is used in Chinese medicine Moutan Cortex for a number of diseases including diabetes and appendicitis. It contains numerous chemicals, that include monoterpenes, monoterpene glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, and phenols. With such a variety of compounds and a lack of understanding of what they can do, it is a bit reckless to use a crude extract and I would wait for more information. Once a beneficial component is found, I would like to see it purified before it’s used in skincare, especially because this plant tends to accumulate heavy metals in its roots.
A modified vitamin C, 3-O-Ethyl Ascorbic Acid, but it can lead to allergic reactions. Why would you use this instead of vitamin C?
Tocopheryl acetate: synthetic vitamin E, can lead to allergic reactions.
Remember: plant extracts don’t make a skincare product more natural, more effective or more beneficial just “because”.
Please read my post on the subject